By Robert I. Frost
The Swedish invasion of 1655, recognized to Poles ever when you consider that because the 'Swedish deluge', provoked the political and armed forces cave in of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second-largest nation in Europe. Robert Frost examines the explanations for Poland's fall and the behavior of the conflict by way of the Polish executive, and addresses the the most important query of why, regardless of frequent attractiveness of the shortcomings of the political process, next makes an attempt at reform failed. battle has lengthy been obvious as an important to the advance of more advantageous platforms of presidency in Europe in the course of the 17th century, yet reports often pay attention to states which answered effectively to the demanding situations. a lot could be realized from those who failed, and the paucity of English-language fabric in this very important clash implies that After the Deluge will attract a wide viewers between historians of Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, Russia, and early sleek Europe mostly.
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Additional resources for After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660
The diet's shortcomings were evident long before 1652. The king set the agenda through the proposals which he circulated to dietines on summoning the diet, but since much time was consumed by remonstrances or private and local matters, it was often impossible to devote enough attention to government policy. Any extension to the session beyond the prescribed span had to be agreed unanimously at the end of each day. Although diets did frequently run beyond their allotted span, envoys were usually reluctant to sanction too many extensions: a significant number of diets had ended without agreeing legislation before Sicinski established the principle that the opposition of one envoy was sufficient.
The first great confrontation came in 1606-7, when Sigismund 35 By the mid-eighteenth century, the income of two individuals, M. S. Potocki, matched the total public revenue. T. Lukowski, Liberty's Folly: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1991) p. 15. 21 After the Deluge Ill's reform plans provoked rebellion. Led by a malcontent magnate, Mikolaj Zebrzydowski, palatine of Cracow, large numbers of the lesser and middling nobility asserted their right to rebel if the king acted in breach of his coronation oath.
By the mid-seventeenth century, the balance of power between the rich and poor nobility had shifted dramatically. Those families who had access to the vast profits to be gained from royal land used the proceeds to build up their private estates. The demand for grain from western Europe increased the profitability of large-scale agricultural enterprises, so that the larger landed proprietors did better than the middle szlachta; they were also better able to absorb the effects of the downturn in the grain market after 1620.
After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660 by Robert I. Frost