By Zaira Khalilova.
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Additional info for A grammar of Khwarshi
G. g. g. g. 14 Uday ‘weed’ Uday-i-L ‘weed-EP-INTER’ Uay ‘tea’ Uay-i-S ‘tea-EP-SUB’ The epenthetic vowel -I- is mostly used by the older generation, while the epenthetic vowel -u- is preferred by younger people. g. ze ‘bear’ ze-y-i-s ‘bear-EP-EP-GEN1 q^e ‘rabbit’ q^e-y-i-s ‘rabbit-EP-EP-GEN1 The epenthetic vowels are also used with verbal stems that have final consonant clusters when adding an inflectional suffix of CV structure. g. g. g. CAUS-PRS’ 40 Note that in the rest of the grammar epenthetic semivowels and vowels are not separated in the glosses and are automatically assigned to the inflectional morpheme.
Only verbs (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7) beginning with a vowel show prefixal gender/number agreement, but there are also some exceptions (cf. 1). 1. OBL-GEN2 aS-a. ’ 2. ø-oSoS’o-so-ho y-oSoS’o-so y-ez-un. 038] 3. mil_l_o b-oSoS’o he[še gul-o. ’ 15 These are allomorphs which occur before roots with nasalized vowels. 43 4. VERS b-ux^-un. 046] 5. UW iLe. 049] 6. ABS kandaba. ‘Once upon a time there were beautiful girls’. 7. ABS girl(II) mada-]ul. 1. Gender assignment Assignment may depend on two basic types of information about the noun: its meaning (semantics) and its form.
GEN1’ The stressed infinitival suffix -a stands in opposition to the non-stressed imperative suffix -o/-a. g. ha[n-á ’bite-INF’ há[n-a ‘bite-IMP’ susan-á ‘move-INF’ súsan-a ‘move-IMP’ Sus-á ‘sleep-INF’ Sús-o ‘sleep-IMP’ ]anq’idok’-á ‘stifle-INF’ ]ánq’idok’-o ‘stifle-IMP’ x^Irday-á ‘snore-INF’ x^j wrday-a ‘snore-IMP’ Imnajšvili (1963: 22) claims that the stress can trigger phonological changes within the word such as reduction, though this question has not been fully studied. 6. 1. Use of the epenthetic semivowel -y- Vocalic clustering is not allowed, and the epenthetic semivowel -y- is used at a morpheme boundary to avoid hiatus.
A grammar of Khwarshi by Zaira Khalilova.